Wallerawang is located approximately 14 km northwest of Lithgow on the Main Western railway line at the junction of the Gwabegar line. A now closed railway station opened in 1870. Wallerawang Power Station opened in 1957.
'Wallerawang' derives from the language of the Wiradjuri Aborigines who occupied the area before white settlement. It is said to mean 'place near wood and water' or 'plenty of water'.
The first European in the immediate vicinity was James Blackman who delineated the first road from Bathurst to the present site of Wallerawang in 1820. The 'Wallerawong' station was taken up by James Walker in 1824, although Andrew Brown of 'Cooerwull' (see entry on Lithgow) managed the property much of the time.
Wallerawang became a major stopover for those headed between Sydney and the farming areas beyond Mudgee and for those travelling between Sydney and Bathurst. One of the latter was famous natural historian Charles Darwin who stayed overnight at 'Wallerawang' farm in 1836 as a guest of Mr Brown.
The rail station has played an important part in the development of the western coalfields of NSW as well as furnishing power for the railways. However, since the mid-1980s, automation, computerisation and rationalisation have resulted in significant job losses from both the power station and the local collieries.